/sys/doc/ Documentation archive


     boot procedures - UNIX startup

     How to start UNIX. UNIX is started by placing it in core at
     location zero and transferring to zero.  Since the system is
     not  reenterable, it is necessary to read it in from disk or

     The tp command places a bootstrap program on  the  otherwise
     unused  block zero of the tape.  The DECtape version of this
     program is called tboot,  the  magtape  version  mboot.   If
     tboot  or  mboot  is  read  into  location zero and executed
     there, it will type `=' on the console, read in a  tp  entry
     name, load that entry into core, and transfer to zero.  Thus
     one way to run UNIX is to maintain the system code on a tape
     using  tp.   Caution:  the file /usr/mdec/tboot (DECtape) or
     /usr/mdec/mboot (magtape) must be present when the  tape  is
     made!   When a boot is required, execute (somehow) a program
     which reads in and jumps to the first block of the tape.  In
     response  to the `=' prompt, type the entry name of the sys-
     tem on the tape (we use plain `unix').  It is strongly  rec-
     ommended  that a current version of the system be maintained
     in this way, even if it is usually booted from disk.

     The standard DEC ROM which loads DECtape  is  sufficient  to
     read  in tboot, but the magtape ROM loads block one, not ze-
     ro.  If no suitable ROM is available,  magtape  and  DECtape
     programs are presented below which may be manually placed in
     core and executed.

     The system can also be booted from a disk file with the  aid
     of the uboot program.  When read into location 0 and execut-
     ed, uboot reads a single character (either p or k for RP  or
     RK, both drive 0) to specify which device is to be searched.
     Then it reads a UNIX pathname from the  console,  finds  the
     corresponding file on the given device, loads that file into
     core location zero, and transfers to it.  Uboot operates un-
     der  very severe space constraints.  It supplies no prompts,
     except that it echoes a carriage return and line feed  after
     the p or k.  No diagnostic is provided if the indicated file
     cannot be found, nor is there any means of correcting  typo-
     graphical  errors  in the file name except to start the pro-
     gram over.  If it fails to find the file, however, it  jumps
     back to its start, so another try can be attempted, starting
     again with the p or k.  Notice that uboot will only  load  a
     file  from  drive  0,  and  the file system it searches must
     start at the beginning of the disk.   Uboot  itself  usually
     resides  in  the otherwise unused block 0 of the disk, so it
     can be loaded by ROM program; mkfs can be  used  to  put  it
     there when the file system is created.  It can also be load-
     ed from a tp tape as described above.

     The switches. The console switches play an important role in
     the  use  and especially the booting of UNIX.  During opera-

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     tion, the console switches are examined 60 times per second,
     and  the  contents  of the address specified by the switches
     are displayed in the display register.  (This is not true on
     the  11/40  since  there  is no display register on that ma-
     chine.)  If the switch address is even, the address  is  in-
     terpreted in kernel (system) space; if odd, the rounded-down
     address is interpreted in the current user space.

     If any diagnostics are produced  by  the  system,  they  are
     printed  on  the  console only if the switches are non-zero.
     Thus it is wise to have a non-zero value in the switches  at
     all times.

     During  the  startup  of the system, the init program(VIII)
     reads the switches and  will  come  up  single-user  if  the
     switches are set to 173030.

     It is unwise to have a non-existent address in the switches.
     This causes a bus error in the system (displayed as  177777)
     at  the rate of 60 times per second.  If there is a transfer
     of more than 16ms duration on a  device  with  a  data  rate
     faster than the bus error timeout (about 10us) then a perma-
     nent disk non-existent-memory error will occur.

     ROM programs. Here are some programs which are suitable  for
     installing  in read-only memories, or for manual keying into
     core if no ROM is present.  Each program  is  position-inde-
     pendent  but  should  be  placed well above location 0 so it
     will not be overwritten.  Each reads a block from the begin-
     ning  of  a device into core location zero.  The octal words
     constituting the program are listed on the left.

     DECtape (drive 0) from endzone:
        012700      mov     $tcba,r0
        010040      mov     r0,-(r0)       / use tc addr for wc
        012710      mov     $3,(r0)        / read bn forward
        105710  1:  tstb    (r0)           / wait for ready
        002376      bge     1b
        112710      movb    $5,(r0)        / read (forward)
        000777      br      .              / loop; now halt and start at 0

     DECtape (drive 0) with search:
        012700  1:  mov     $tcba,r0
        010040      mov     r0,-(r0)       / use tc addr for wc
        012740      mov     $4003,-(r0)    / read bn reverse
        005710  2:  tst     (r0)
        002376      bge     2b             / wait for error
        005760      tst     -2(r0)         / loop if not end zone
        002365      bge     1b
        012710      mov     $3,(r0)        / read bn forward

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        105710  2:  tstb    (r0)           / wait for ready
        002376      bge     2b
        112710      movb    $5,(r0)        / read (forward)
        105710  2:  tstb    (r0)           / wait for ready
        002376      bge     2b
        005007      clr     pc             / transfer to zero

     Caution: both of these  DECtape  programs  will  (literally)
     blow a fuse if 2 drives are dialed to zero.

     Magtape from load point:
        012700      mov     $mtcma,r0
        010040      mov     r0,-(r0)       / usr mt addr for wc
        012740      mov     $60003,-(r0)   / read 9-track
        000777      br      .              / loop; now halt and start at 0

     RK (drive 0):
        012700      mov     $rkda,r0
        005040      clr     -(r0)          / rkda cleared by start
        010040      mov     r0,-(r0)
        012740      mov     $5,-(r0)
        105710  1:  tstb    (r0)
        002376      bge     1b
        005007      clr     pc

     RP (drive 0)
        012700      mov     $rpmr,r0
        005040      clr     -(r0)
        005040      clr     -(r0)
        005040      clr     -(r0)
        010040      mov     r0,-(r0)
        012740      mov     $5,-(r0)
        105710  1:  tstb    (r0)
        002376      bge     1b
        005007      clr     pc

     /unix - UNIX code
     /usr/mdec/mboot - tp magtape bootstrap
     /usr/mdec/tboot - tp DECtape bootstrap
     /usr/mdec/uboot - file system bootstrap

     tp(I), init(VIII)

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